Сигнал в тело клетки   С

Филоподии сорока других соседних конусов роста и аксонов контактируют с поверхностью конуса роста нейрона С, но материал ни одного из них не переходит в него. Возможно, что таким образом посылаётся сигнал в тело клетки С, где синтезируются необходимые молекулы. Этот сигнал как бы говорит: «Ваш конус роста нашел аксон Р, подготовьтесь к следующему этапу выбора».

Эксперименты с моноклональными антителамн демонстрируют подобное изменение специфичности. Так, антитело Mes-2 выявляет «свой» антиген поверхности только на четырех нервных клетках из тысячи в каждом полусегменте: на двух мотонейронах и двух интернейронах. Более того, этот антиген есть только на определенной стадии развития. Мотонейроны, с поверхностью которых связывается Mes-2, обозначаются FETi и SETi. Их аксоны за пределами центральной нервной системы образуют один пучок и иннервируют одну и ту же мышцу. Нейроны FETi и SETi происходят от разных нейробластов, но из всех потомков этих нейробластов только их аксоны объединяются и на них появляется один и тот же антиген. К тому моменту, когда аксоны мотонейронов FETi и SETi впервые встречаются «на краю» центральной нервной системы, ни один из них не несет антиген Mes-2, и они не объединяются в пучок. Только позже, встретив отростки нескольких других клеток и находясь уже в зачатке конечности, они сталкиваются вновь. Теперь поведение этих аксонов меняется: они соединяются и дальше следуют вместе к развивающейся мышце-мишени. Мы обнаружили, что антиген Mes-2 появляется на обоих аксонах непосредственно перед их второй встречей. Еще позже, после того как аксоны достигнут нужной мышцы, содержание Mes-2 быстро падает и в конечном счете он исчезает.

Локализация антигена Mes-2 на поверхности только четырех нейронов и только временное его присутствие соответствовали предсказаниям гипотезы меченых путей, что, конечно, нас очень радовало, но в то же время и расстраивало, поскольку мы понимали, как трудно будет выделить столь эфемерные молекулы и изучить их функцию. Ведь необходимо было выявить и идентифицировать кодирующий эти молекулы ген, и уже тогда методами молекулярной генетики манипулировать его экспрессией.

 

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