Симметричное плато

36 млн. лет назад плиты изменили направление своего движения на более западное, что послужило причиной изгиба следа горячей точки к востоку. Это изменение проявляется в очертаниях плато: в его V-образную форму вклинивается более молодой сегмент с субширотной ориентацией, перпендикулярной оси спрединга. Плато остается симметричным относительно оси, и прямая линия, проведенная от горячей точки, пересекает ось хребта в центре плато. Оба этих наблюдения свидетельствуют о том, что мантийная струя продолжала подводить расплавленные породы к хребту.

В это время горячая точка находилась под океанической литосферой, которая несколько тоньше, чем континентальная литосфера. Мантийная струя должна была еще больше утонить ее. В нашей модели предполагается, что хребет впоследствии «перескочил» в область ослабленной литосферы, оставив отмерший центр спрединга в восточной части плато. Несмотря на то что существование подобного реликта еще дискутируется, геологическая активность, по- видимому, действительно закончилась на востоке примерно в то время, когда ось спрединга должна была перескочить на запад; возраст пород, отобранных из буровой скважины вблизи центра восточной части плато, равен приблизительно 40—43 млн. лет.

Спрединг океанского дна продолжается на западном окончании плато. Вследствие того что горячая точка находилась под осью спрединга, материал мантийной струи начал течь вдоль оси, обусловливая современную , суживающуюся к югу структуру хребта. Перемещающиеся на запад плиты вскоре отодвинули ось хребта от горячей точки, но мантийная струя продолжала снабжать хребет материалом. Древнейшие обнажения в Исландии найдены вблизи ее восточного и западного побережий, что и следовало ожидать от острова, сформировавшегося на оси спрединга. Возраст обнажений дает основание предполагать, что остров был рожден 16—12 млн. лет назад. Исландия продолжает оставаться активной в геологическом отношении областью. За прошедшие несколько миллионов лет в результате перемещения оси спрединга на восток хребет вновь оказался над горячей точкой.

 

 

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