След горячей точки

Начинают обычно с того, что выявляют на одной из плит отчетливый след горячей точки, например цепочку подводных гор, затем учитывают более сомнительные следы, добиваясь «наилучшего совпадения». Последнее предполагает, что рассчитанные абсолютные движения должны лучше всего удовлетворять ограничениям, которые накладываются данными по следам горячих точек и по относительным движениям.

Используя эту методику, мы реконструировали раскрытие Атлантического и Индийского океанов. Реконструкции поддаются проверке: природа и возраст поверхностных структур вдоль следов горячих точек должны согласовываться с предположением о том, что эти структуры были сформированы при прохождении плиты над мантийной струей. Причем такое согласование должно выполняться не только на отчетливых отрезках следов, но и в областях, где следы экстраполируются на основе рассчитанных движений плит и где свидетельства активности горячих точек ранее не наблюдались.

Несмотря на то что имеющиеся в нашем распоряжении данные фрагментарны (в частности, в отношении возраста структур на океаническом ложе), реконструкции в целом выдерживают проверку. Хорошим примером служит след горячей точки, которая сформировала подводную гору Грейт-Метеор к югу от Азорских островов (см. рисунок на с. 16 и 17). 200 млн. лет назад полярная область к северо-западу от Гудзонова залива находилась над мантийной струей Г рейт-Метеор; по прошествии 50 млн. лет над горячей точкой расположилась территория нынешней провинции Онтарио. То обстоятельство, что Канадский щит обнажен от провинции Манитоба до Онтарио, может быть связано с подъемом коры мантийной струей; в приподнятой области осадки, перекрывающие породы фундамента, с течением времени должны быть размыты и снесены.

100 млн. лет назад след «настиг» у мыса Кейп-Код молодой и узкий Атлантический океан.

 

 

 

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