Сложности восприятия

Вторая сложность в процессе восприятия связана с тем, что категориальные границы, воспринимаемые взрослыми, изменяются не только в результате взаимодействия многочисленных признаков, но и вследствие варьирования акустического контекста. И в этой области у детей нетрудно заметить прообразы более зрелых способов восприятия. Миллер и я показали, что различение взрывной согласной в слоге bah и полугласной в слоге wah у младенцев, как и у взрослых, зависит от длительности следующей за начальным звуком гласной. Акустическая основа такой зависимости заключается в длительности формантных переходов, т.е. периодов, необходимых для достижения средними частотами формант значений, соответствующих последующему гласному звуку. В случае с bah изменения форманты происходят быстро, в случае с wah — более медленно.

Однако, чем больше длительность гласной, тем медленнее должны быть формантные переходы, чтобы младенцы могли обнаружить разницу в стимулах bah и wah.

Были продемонстрированы и другие примеры весьма сложного влияния контекста на категоризацию речи младенцев. Юзчик и его коллеги из Орегонского университета определили, при каких начальных частотах формант младенцы улавливали разницу между фонемами, различающимися по месту артикуляции. Граница сдвигалась в зависимости от того, присутствовал ли дополнительный акустический шум, свидетельствующий скорее о фрикативном, чем смычном согласном.




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