Сложный механизм категориального восприятия

Сложный механизм категориального восприятия позволяет индивидууму узнавать фонемы вопреки различным вариациям основных акустических параметров. Другие виды вариантности еще больше затрудняют определение речевого сигнала. Длительность слогов наряду с другими временными характеристиками речи меняется в зависимости от скорости речи и расстановки ударений; вариации основной частоты звучания голоса и распределения резонансных частот зависят от пола, возраста и эмоционального состояния говорящего. Должен существовать какой-то механизм, который позволял бы нам слышать одну и ту же фонему всякий раз, когда она произносится, несмотря на все вариации. Этот феномен перцептивной константности не может быть непосредственно изучен у младенцев. И все же исследования их способностей формировать эквивалентные классы, т.е. группы стимулов, которые вызывают одинаковую реакцию вопреки очевидным различиям, предполагает, что младенцам в какой-то мере уже свойственна перцептивная константность.

П. Куль и ее коллеги из Вашингтонского университета исследовали процесс формирования эквивалентных классов речевых звуков у шестимесячных младенцев. На первой стадии каждого эксперимента младенцы учились поворачивать голову на 90° в сторону громкоговорителя каждый раз, когда серия контрастных стимулов возникала на звуковом фоне; появление при этом яркой подвижной игрушки над громкоговорителем подкрепляло положительную реакцию. В одном эксперименте фоном служила последовательность идентичных гласных /а/, таких как в слове pop; звук //, такой как в слове peep, служил контрастным стимулом. По окончании обучения стимулы стали варьироваться: гласные /а/ и /М оставались теми же, но произносились теперь разными голосами с разными интонациями. Ряды без контрастных стимулов, в которых каждый звук являлся вариацией звука /а/, служили для контроля.

Младенцы успешно выделяли контрастные стимулы и игнорировали «внутри- категориальные» акустические вариации в контрольных сериях. После подсчета числа всех ошибочных реакций и пропущенных контрастных стимулов оказалось, что правильные реакции составили около 80%. В семи из восьми случаев дети показывали результат отличный от случайного. Когда Куль и ее коллеги повторили эксперимент с менее различающимися акустически гласными /а/ и / э/, такой как в слове paw, младенцы все-таки различали звуки, хотя и с меньшей надежностью; число правильных реакций составило 67%, только четверо из восьми младенцев показали отличный от случайного результат.

 

 

 

 

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