Современная методика омоложения

С помощью питательных субстратов, аэрированных, нагретых до нужной температуры, удобренных и увлажненных, в срезанных частях стимулируют развитие корней. После того как они укореняются, начинают делать частые и низкие подрезки. И, конечно, применяют всевозможные меры, обеспечивающие здоровое состояние растений. Современная методика омоложения, одновременно изящная и эффективная, предполагает предельно возможное уменьшение черенка и его выращивание в стерильных условиях на искусственной желеобразной среде, которая служит опорой. В эту среду вносят минеральные вешества, витамины, сахара, а также гормоны для регулирования развития. Самый современный метод заключается в культивировании in viiro меристемы — недифференцированной верхушечной или камбиальной ткани, клетки которой сохранили свою тотипотентность (камбий — это пролиферирующий слой клеток, благодаря которому стебель растет в толщину). Этот метод только начинает разрабатываться. Он был испытан на лугласии Pseudotsuga menziesii и на секвойе Sequoia sempervirens в лаборатории Ассоциации лес—целлюлоза. Наконец, некоторые лаборатории используют культуру протопластов (клеток, лишенных внешней оболочки) для определенных пород, в частности для сосны приморской (исследования в Университете Бордо). Цель этого метода — получить дерево из одной клетки и осуществить (на клеточном уровне) межвидовую гибридизацию путем слияния протопластов в тех случаях, когда ее невозможно реализовать обычным способом.

Однако культура in vitro возможна только при омоложении. Микрочеренок, достигший нескольких сантиметров в длину, извлекают, разрезают и каждую часть сажают отдельно для получения растения; эта операция повторяется многократно. Интервал между пикировками — примерно три недели, за это время число клеток увеличивается вчетверо. Такая методика

позволяет быстро получить множество копий данного дерева.

Не все клоны можно размножать так быстро. Некоторые очень старые клоны плохо поддаются реактивации: почки, из которых они выросли, были запрограммированы на рост «старческого типа». У определенных пород это состояние настолько стабильно, что размножение черенками трудноосуществимо.



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