Способ восприятия

Результаты показали, что младенцы, как и взрослые, уже владеющие языком, безусловно, воспринимают различия во времени начала фонации. Когда оба звука, которые предъявлялись младенцам, оказывались по одну сторону 30-миллисекундной границы, переход от одного звука к другому не вызывал увеличения темпа сосания. Младенцы, казалось, не замечали перемены во времени начала фонации. В то же время, когда стимулы оказывались по разные стороны этой границы, наблюдалось резкое возрастание темпа сосательных движений при смене одного звука другим, что свидетельствовало о восприятии младенцами такой смены.

В опытах некоторых исследователей и в моих собственных экспериментах были обнаружены другие характерные границы, проявляющиеся в реакциях младенцев на акустическую информацию в речи. Как и взрослые, младенцы явно реагируют на изменения начальных частот второй и третьей формант, т.е. на тот акустический сигнал, который обозначает различия в месте артикуляции согласной. Точно так же они реагируют и на акустические признаки, которые свидетельствуют о различиях между носовыми и смычными согласными (примером могут служить начальные звуки сочетаний mah («ма») и bah («ба»)), а также между смычными согласными и полугласными, такими как начальный звук в сочетании wah.

Способ восприятия, который мы обнаружили у младенцев, трудно объяснить учением. Действительно, какие события в первые недели жизни могут научить ребенка явно реагировать на вариации акустических признаков? Легче предположить, что категоризация происходит потому, что ребенок рождается с готовыми механизмами восприятия, настроенными на свойства речи. Эти механизмы образуют задатки для восприятия фонематических категорий, которые в дальнейшем позволяют ребенку автоматически превращать варьирующиеся звуковые сигналы в ряды фонем, а затем — в слова и их значения.

ЕСЛИ эти механизмы восприятия действительно биологически обусловлены, они должны быть всеобщими. Одинаковые схемы восприятия должны проявляться у младенцев в разных языковых культурах. В 1975 г. Р. Ласки, Э. Сирдал-Ласки и Р. Клейн, работавшие в Институте питания в Панаме, сообщили о своих исследованиях по восприятию времени начала фонации у гватемальских младенцев, родившихся в испано-говорящей среде.





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