Сравнительный анализ

Значит, скорпион определяет направление на добычу путем сравнительного анализа информации от двух пространственно разделенных рецепторов, прореагировавших на прохождение одной и той же волны. Восемь ног взрослого скорпиона образуют округлое сенсорное поле диаметром 4—6 см. Это сравнительно большое пространство в принципе может работать одним из двух способов. Во-первых, направление на источник волн можно определять по запаздыванию, т.е. разнице во времени раздражения рецепторов, находящихся ближе к источнику, и рецепторов, расположенных дальше от него; в этом случае скорпион просто поворачивается в направлении тех рецепторов, которые получили сигнал первыми. При диаметре сенсорного поля 5 см время запаздывания равно примерно 1 мс, поскольку рэлеевские волны распространяются со скоростью 50 м/с. Для волн сжатия, распространяющихся со скоростью 150 м/с, это время составит около 0,3 мс. Многие животные определяют направление на источник волн сжатия, распространяющихся в воздухе, при меньшем времени запаздывания; например, человеку, чтобы понять, где находится источник звука, достаточно менее 10 мке разницы во времени поступления звуковой волны к левому уху и к правому. Во-вторых, направление на источник волн можно определять по разнице в интенсивности стимуляции разных рецепторов. По мере продвижения волны ее амплитуда уменьшается отчасти из-за того, что фронт волны расширяется, и ее энергия соответственно распределяется по все большей площади, а отчасти из-за поглощения сигнала средой. Поэтому рецепторы, расположенные ближе к источнику колебаний, получают более интенсивный стимул. Чтобы установить, какой из двух способов используется скорпионом, я сделал специальное приспособление. Оно представляло собой помост, разделенный посередине узкой шелью. Каждая его половина была снабжена отдельным механическим вибратором, так что можно было вызывать колебание одной половины независимо от другой. Скорпиона помешали «верхом» над шелью, так что левые ноги попадали на одну сторону, а правые на другую, и включали вибраторы, причем время и интенсивность колебаний были разными для каждой половины помоста.

 

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