Ускорители в экспериментах

Ускорители, используемые в экспериментах с релятивистскими тяжелыми ионами, — это синхротроны, во многом похожие на ускорители, которые применяют для изучения элементарных частиц. Однако они ускоряют не отдельные частицы (такие, как протоны или электроны), а создают пучки ионов, т.е. атомов, с которых «ободрана» большая часть окружающих их электронов. Почти вся масса иона сосредоточена в ядре, поэтому можно считать, что ускоряется просто атомное ядро.

Возможности ускорителя тяжелых ионов зависят от того, насколько большую энергию он может сообщить ядру и насколько массивные ядра он может ускорять. Энергию ядра обычно выражают в миллионах или миллиардах электронвольт (МэВ или ГэВ) на один нуклон, а массу — с помощью массового числа, которое равно полному числу нуклонов в ядре. Синхрофазотрон в Объединенном институте ядерных исследований в Дубне (СССР) может ускорять ионы неона (массовое число 20) до энергии 4 ГэВ на нуклон. При такой энергии ионы летят со скоростью, составляющей 98% скорости света. Ускоритель Bevalac в Лаборатории Лоуренса (Калифорнийский университет в Беркли) ускоряет до энергии

2   ГэВ на нуклон такие тяжелые ионы, как ионы урана (массовое число 238).

Ускоренные ядра сталкиваются с ядрами покоящейся мишени. Результат столкновения зависит от энергии ускоренных ионов, масс падающего ядра и ядра-мишени, величины так называемого «параметра столкновения», который указывает, столкнулись ли ядра «лоб в лоб», или улар был скользящим. Наиболее интересные события происходят при высокоэнергетических «лобовых» столкновениях очень тяжелых ядер.

ГЛАВНАЯ цель изучения таких событий — получить уравнения состояния ядерного вещества, т.е. уравнение, описывающее поведение ядра при изменение температуры, давления и

плотности.

 

 

 

60 Comments

  1. 685117 743824Someone necessarily assist to make critically articles I

  2. I just want to say I’m very new to blogging and site-building and certainly savored your blog. More than likely I’m going to bookmark your blog . You actually have awesome stories. Thanks a lot for sharing with us your web site.

  3. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with some pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is wonderful blog. A great read. I’ll certainly be back.

  4. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having problems locating it but, I’d like to send you an email. I’ve got some suggestions for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it improve over time.

  5. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I found it for him smile Therefore let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! «High living and high thinking are poles apart.» by B. J. Gupta.

  6. I am always looking online for tips that can facilitate me. Thx!

  7. Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you’ve on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the info I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What a perfect site.

  8. Enjoyed examining this, very good stuff, thankyou . «It is well to remember that the entire universe, with one trifling exception, is composed of others.» by John Andrew Holmes.

  9. I do trust all of the ideas you have offered for your post. They’re very convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are too short for starters. May just you please extend them a little from next time? Thank you for the post.

  10. Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your web site is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and just couldn’t come across. What an ideal web site.

  11. You are really a very good webmaster. BLOGURL loading full speed is amazing. It kind of feels you happen to be doing any unique fool. Moreover, The contents BLOGTITLE are masterwork. you’ve done a congrats in this subject! NAME

  12. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it’s really informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  13. Mac users include anyone with in iPod, an iBook, a G4 Power book or some other superior Apple product. Does the Mac user that you saw need innovative Apple toys or accessories to make their computer time more productive or higher fun? Family member . it’s time someone sort started enjoying the functionality having using an Apple unit. Check this holiday gift guide for ideas precisely what to buy for the Mac user on your holiday grocery list.As soon as your mind is mobilized by words, you can get the physical body to produce or hurt. Voodoo and juju have shown how our minds could affect our physical well-being. You most likely are under a spell at this time. Someone said something to hurt your feelings, and now you must a headache or the common cold. It was psychosomatic: the state the mind affected the healthiness of the entire.On the hand, LG-G slate and LG Optimus 2X are Android v3.3 (Honeycomb) computer that provide smooth functioning of concepts. Both the slabs sport eight.9 inches 3D LCD capacitive display screen and 16 million an automobile. Be it the size of screen and camera quality or the memory, each gadgets aren’t an less better than the other one. You can click beautiful pictures with their snapper of 5 mega-pixels. Furthermore, there are several tools with both the tablets than can boost the beauty of images. The buyers can also do live video talk to the 2 . 5.0 mega pixels camera that is endowed with both the tablets.An Xbox Live Gold 12 month membership subscription gives you many privileges the Silver does not. This includes free access to Netflix’s move and tv program library those who are already part of Netflix. You will also be in a position access multiplayer games, have game parties, access special features available on the market and far.To Usain, his real breakthrough and greatest moment was as he won provides you with home country (Jamaica) as being a 15 yrs . old boy! Usain corrected people’s misconception that Beijing was his greatest moment even so it was really when he was running at home at 15 (2002 World Junior Championships), he had «never been that nervous», and rapidly won which Usain said was the time that defined his whole life.Aside from ClickBank, you will find other sites that hand calculators sign up as an marketing. Listed below are the major affiliate networks available to become listed on that partner with a lot of the biggest brands and shopping sites on the internet.Their international male clientele enjoys speediest and most popular ways of communicating with Ladies of your CIS, namely email correspondence and watch live sex. More than 600,000 letters are sent by our clients working day.So personal on strategy page there isn’t direct relationship with a channel, since the news broadcast and both stations are of the same ownership. You will find the name of Valley News Live.Share with other family members and friends those Internet contacts you are involved in for extended friendship or for future dating or relationship purposes. Also let person with whom you are corresponding know your friends and family are aware of them. Merely will this help weed out the «insinceres,» but could help insure your safety, also.This just proves for how simply the process can be achieved. There are other advanced ways you can do this, but this can provide a beginning to grow from.

  14. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again soon!

  15. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

  16. Wow! This could be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Fantastic. I’m also a specialist in this topic therefore I can understand your hard work.

  17. I think other web site proprietors should take this web site as an model, very clean and magnificent user genial style and design, let alone the content. You’re an expert in this topic!

  18. I do believe all the ideas you have presented to your post. They’re very convincing and can certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thank you for the post.

  19. Thanks , I have recently been looking for info about this subject for a long time and yours is the best I have found out so far. But, what concerning the conclusion? Are you sure in regards to the source?

  20. I am glad for commenting to make you be aware of of the useful discovery my wife’s princess developed reading through the blog. She picked up plenty of things, which included what it’s like to possess an incredible teaching mindset to have other people quite simply grasp various specialized matters. You truly did more than people’s expected results. Many thanks for showing those insightful, trustworthy, revealing and also cool tips on the topic to Ethel.

  21. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he just bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

  22. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is simply cool and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

  23. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently quickly.

  24. Wow, awesome blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is magnificent, let alone the content!

  25. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future. Many people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  26. A lot of thanks for your whole effort on this blog. Gloria really loves engaging in internet research and it is simple to grasp why. All of us notice all concerning the dynamic way you convey valuable secrets through the web blog and as well encourage response from some others on this subject matter while my simple princess has always been starting to learn a lot of things. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You’re the one carrying out a first class job.

  27. Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your web site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you¡¦ve on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the info I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What a great web-site.

  28. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  29. you’re in point of fact a excellent webmaster. The site loading velocity is amazing. It seems that you are doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a fantastic job on this subject!

  30. I like the valuable information you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I’m quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

  31. It is in reality a nice and helpful piece of info. I am satisfied that you just shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  32. Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and help others like you aided me.

  33. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  34. I think other website proprietors should take this web site as an model, very clean and excellent user genial style and design, let alone the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  35. Hi my friend! I want to say that this article is awesome, nice written and include almost all vital infos. I¡¦d like to look more posts like this .

  36. I was very happy to uncover this website. I want to to thank you for your time for this wonderful read!! I definitely really liked every little bit of it and I have you saved as a favorite to see new information in your website.

  37. you’re truly a excellent webmaster. The web site loading pace is amazing. It kind of feels that you are doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a great task on this matter!

  38. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my difficulty. You are wonderful! Thanks!

  39. I’ve been browsing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever before.

  40. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! By the way, how could we communicate?

  41. Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your website is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you’ve on this site. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched all over the place and just couldn’t come across. What a great web-site.

  42. I merely want to tell you that I am new to online blogging and undeniably cherished your post. Likely I am probably to remember your blog post . You definitely have superb article material. Get Pleasure From it for swapping with us your favorite site article

  43. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  44. Greetings here, just started to be familiar with your web page through Yahoo and bing, and discovered that it’s pretty informative. I will like if you carry on this informative article.

  45. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  46. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.

  47. Hello there, I discovered your site via Google whilst looking for a comparable subject, your site came up, it appears good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  48. Hi, Neat post. There is an issue together with your web site in internet explorer, may check this¡K IE nonetheless is the market leader and a good section of other people will leave out your magnificent writing due to this problem.

  49. Hello very nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds additionally…I’m happy to seek out numerous helpful information right here in the publish, we need work out more strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

  50. Emeryeps is a SEO(Search Engine optimzation) and Internet Marketing company. They help businesses to get traffic from various search engine and online community. They have seo experts and consultants with many years of SEO Experiences. No matter where your business is located, EmeryEPS.com can help your business to secure your highly convertible leads online.

  51. Nice blog here! Also your website loads up very fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  52. MichaelJemery.com is a site with many hypnosis downloads. Whether you are looking for free hypnosis downloads, self hypnosis download for mp3, video and any audio files, Michael Jemery has the downloads for you. You can download hypnosis from apps, audio, mp3 and even youtube !

  53. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  54. hey there and thank you for your information – I have certainly picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise some technical points using this web site, as I experienced to reload the site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK? Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could damage your quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective interesting content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

  55. I do believe all of the ideas you’ve introduced on your post. They’re very convincing and will certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are too brief for beginners. May just you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  56. hi!,I love your writing very much! proportion we keep up a correspondence more approximately your article on AOL? I require an expert on this space to solve my problem. May be that’s you! Having a look forward to peer you.

  57. I got what you mean , regards for posting .Woh I am pleased to find this website through google. «You must pray that the way be long, full of adventures and experiences.» by Constantine Peter Cavafy.

  58. I enjoy you because of your own work on this web page. Ellie enjoys conducting investigations and it’s really easy to see why. Many of us know all of the compelling form you provide invaluable steps through the website and therefore strongly encourage response from website visitors on that topic plus our child is actually being taught a lot. Enjoy the remaining portion of the year. You are always performing a superb job.

  59. I’ve been browsing on-line more than three hours today, but I by no means found any interesting article like yours. It is beautiful value sufficient for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made excellent content material as you did, the web can be a lot more helpful than ever before. «Baseball is 90 percent mental. The other half is physical.» by Lawrence Peter Berra.

  60. Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Excellent. I am also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your effort.

Оставить коментарий