Устранимые ошибки

Если повреждены адресные линии, то ненадежными могут стать целая строка или столбец данных. Иногда микросхемы выходят из строя частично или полностью. Ошибки, относящиеся к классу устранимых, возникают в неповрежденных микросхемах. Обычно виновником таких ошибок является альфа-частица — ядро атома гелия (состоящего из двух протонов и двух нейтронов), испущенное ядром тяжелого атома в результате радиоактивного распада.

Альфа-частицы — отрицательный фактор, как правило присущий устройствам памяти компьютеров, поскольку радиоактивные ядра в небольших количествах присутствуют почти во всех материалах. В частности, атомы урана и тория содержатся в пластмассовых корпусах обычных микросхем памяти. Таким образом, кристалл подвергается постоянной бомбардировке. Когда альфа-частица, обладающая достаточно высокой энергией, проникает через потенциальную яму, электроны покидают те места, которые они прежде занимали в кристаллической решетке кремния, и могут попасть в близлежащие потенциальные ямы. Если яма была заполнена электронами (т.е. если в ячейке хранился 0), то это не приводит ни к каким последствиям. Если же потенциальная яма первоначально была «пустой» (т.е. в ячейке хранилась 1), то может возникнуть ошибка: 1 может превратиться в 0.

КАК помогает в такой ситуации корректирующий код? Чтобы получить ответ на этот вопрос, рассмотрим некое гипотетическое устройство памяти емкостью 1 мегабайт, состоящее из 128 микросхем по 64К. В таком устройстве памяти микросхемы расположены в четыре ряда, по 32 микросхемы в каждом ряду. Поскольку в каждой микросхеме содержится 65536 ячеек памяти, устройство емкостью в I мегабайт имеет 8388608 ячеек. (По нынешним временам это совсем небольшая память.) Данные хранятся в виде «слов», по 32 бит в каждом. Содержимое слова определяется значениями ячеек, расположенных в одном и том же ряду в 32 микросхемах.

Как долго может функционировать это устройство памяти без сбоев? Еще в эпоху, предшествующую появлению компьютеров, статистики ввели понятие среднего времени до появления сбоя. Это промежуток времени, в течение которого в среднем устройство работает безошибочно.

 

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