Увеличение производительности

Все это способствовало резкому увеличению производительности верфей, что было немаловажно в то время, когда Испания остро нуждалась в новых кораблях для зашиты своих разросшихся владений. В каждом из этих шести проектов предусматривались меры для сочетания устойчивости платформы для орудий с хорошей маневренностью и ходкостью под парусами. В основе классификации лежало количество орудийных палуб и пушек на борту. Навио 1-го ранга, такие, как «Сантисима Тринидад», считались самыми крупными и были вооружены наиболее мощной артиллерией. «Сантисима Тринидад» был единственным военным кораблем, имевшим четыре палубы, на которых

размешались 144 пушки. Другие корабли 1-го ранга были трехмачтовыми и трехпалубными. Навио 2-го ранга также имели три палубы и от 80 до 98 пушек. У кораблей 3-го ранга было всего две палубы и от 74 до 80 пушек. Корабли этих трех высших рангов обычно считались линейными кораблями.

Корабли 4, 5 и 6-го рангов, которые имели небольшое количество пушек и могли развивать высокую скорость, считались крейсерами. На кораблях 4-го ранга было две палубы с 50—60 пушками, на кораблях 5-го и 6-го рангов — по одной палубе; количество пушек равнялось соответственно 32—44 и 20—28. Суда 6-го ранга считались самыми быстроходными в испанском флоте и часто использовались для почтовой связи с далекими испанскими колониями. Высота испанского навио 1-го ранга от киля до верхней палубы равнялась высоте современного пятиэтажного здания. Над еланями был главный трюм, над которым находился орлопдек, или самая нижняя палуба. Над ней располагались три основные орудийные палубы — нижняя, средняя и верхняя. Высокое расположение трех тяжелых палуб вызывало сильную бортовую качку, и нередко орудия нижней палубы (в основном это касалось английских кораблей) оказывались ниже ватерлинии.

Наиболее безопасной считалась самая нижняя палуба (орлопдек). На ней размещался лазарет, который редко пустовал во время жестоких сражений и в котором проводились безотлагательные ампутации и обрабатывались раны. На английских кораблях орлопдек был обычно выкрашен красной краской, на которой были менее заметны пятна крови, стекающей с хирургического стола.

 

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