Ведущие ночной образ жизни

Однако благодаря тому, что песок впитывает влагу, на нем могут произрастать сухостойкие кустарники, как, например, прозопис, а также несколько видов однолетних трав. Эти растения не дают дюнам разрушаться от ветра и обеспечивают многочисленных обитающих здесь животных водой и пищей. Большинство животных, населяющих дюны, — это ведущие ночной образ жизни членистоногие: паукообразные и насекомые. Днем они спасаются от царящей на поверхности иссушающей жары, «ныряя» или зарываясь в песок: уже на глубине 10 см температура падает до 40°С, что вполне терпимо для животных, а влажность поднимается до 90% и выше. Г. Поулис из Университета Вандербильта установил, что песчаный скорпион — весьма обычный обитатель дюн, притом один из самых крупных; к концу своего 5—6-летнего жизненного цикла он может достичь 8 см в длину и 4 г веса. Благодаря таким размерам скорпион занимает крайнее положение в пищевой цепи. Он поедает любую добычу, которую может достаточно долго удерживать на месте до тех пор, пока она не будет парализована ядом, который хищник впрыскивает в ее тело через жало на конце своей хвостовой части. К числу жертв скорпиона принадлежат различные насекомые, а также более мелкие представители его собственного вида, которые составляют существенную часть рациона. Типичная для скорпиона охота начинается с того, что он вылезает из своей норки на поверхность песка и располагается поблизости, подкарауливая животных, которые окажутся в пределах досягаемости. В ожидании добычи он часами остается неподвижным, а потом возвращается в свою норку, где может пробыть безвыходно несколько дней.

мя все тело приподнимается нал поверхностью песка. Каждое последующее движение жертвы вызывает у скорпиона реакцию ориентации: он быстро поворачивает педипальпы в направлении добычи и передвигается на несколько сантиметров ближе к ней. Если педипальпы еше не достают до жертвы, то он ждет неподвижно того момента, когда та сделает следующее движение. Охота обычно продолжается не более нескольких секунд и включает от 1 до 5 реакций ориентации, каждой из которых обязательно предшествует период неподвижности, которая немедленно нарушается при новом колебании песка «под ногами» жертвы.

 

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