Внутримембранные частицы

Если такая точка зрения верна, то в принципе возможно выделить соответствующие белки из негативных мембран нервных окончаний. Искусственные мембраны, в которые можно встроить эти белки, должны приобрести способность к высвобождению ацетилхолина при стимуляции ионами кальция.

Недавно мы попытались провести такой эксперимент. Результаты, хотя и предварительные, обнадеживают. Из электрического органа Torpedo выделяли синаптосомы, нарушали целостность их мембран и отмывали синаптические везикулы и все прочие цитоплазматические компоненты си- наптосом. Мембраны синаптосом полученный материал включали в искусственные мембраны, изготовленные из продажного лецитина.

При обработке таких искусственных мембран ультразвуком из них образовывались небольшие замкнутые «мешочки», похожие на исходные синаптосомы Torpedo, но в отличие от них полностью лишенные внутренних компонентов, в том числе синаптических везикул. Когда эти искусственные синаптосомы заполняли аиетилхолином и вводили внутрь их кальций, ацетилхолин высвобождался в окружающую среду. Причем во время выхода ацетилхолина в мембранах искусственных синаптосом наблюдались крупные внутримембранные частицы.

Если аппарат высвобождения ацетилхолина локализован в мембранах нервных окончаний и при передаче нервного импульса выделяется цитоплазматический ацетилхолин, то какова же роль синаптических везикул? Одной из их функций может быть хранение резервного ацетилхолина, который после длительной активности нейронов компенсировал бы истощение цитоплазматического запаса.

Синаптические везикулы обладают еще одним важным свойством (оно было обнаружено недавно в одной из наших лабораторий). Они могут захватывать кальций и тем самым способствовать прекращению высвобождения ацетилхолина. После длительной стимуляции нерва ацетилхолин начинает вытекать из везикул, а затем они заполняются кальцием. Можно предположить, что для удаления кальция из клеток такие везикулы могут время от времени сливаться с синаптической мембраной и выводить свое содержимое из клетки путем эк- зоцитоза. Эта цепь событий пока что установлена лишь частично, но можно, по-видимому, не сомневаться в том, что везикулы необходимы для регуляции уровней ацетилхолина и кальция в синаптической щели.

 

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