Восприятие речи

Восприятие речи — это сложный и тонкий процесс, который во всех описанных исследованиях категориального восприятия анализировался только в самых простых чертах. Поясним сказанное, рассмотрев акустическую информацию, которая позволяет слушающему воспринимать различия фонации. До сих пор в качестве основной характеристики мы брали непрерывный отрезок времени, соответствующий интервалу между концом смычки и началом фонации. В обыденной речи, однако, восприятие различий фонации определяется взаимодействием временных и спектральных факторов. Взаимодействие этих акустических характеристик можно назвать отношениями перцептивной взаимозависимости: изменение значения одной характеристики вызывает изменение значения другой, что ведет к сдвигу категориальной границы.

Например, благодаря функциональным особенностям механизмов артикуляции частота первой, нижней, форманты тем больше, чем больше время начала фонации. Наша система восприятия, очевидно, настроена на такую взаимосвязь: изменение частоты может выполнять роль изменения временных признаков. Когда частота первой форманты возрастает, эффект оказывается таким же, как если бы увеличилось время начала фонации. В результате на более высоких начальных частотах взрослые раньше воспринимают границу звонкости/глухости в континууме времени начала фонации.

Те же самые тонкие связи свойственны и системам восприятия у младенцев. В 1983 г. Дж. Миллер из Северо- Восточного университета и я показали, что один вариант перцептивной взаимозависимости, выявленный у взрослых, встречается также и в реакциях младенцев. Мы обнаружили, что время начала фонации, при котором трех- и четырехмесячные младенцы различают переход от начальной звонкой согласной в слоге dah («да») к глухой в слоге lah («та»), изменяется вместе с начальной частотой первой форманты.





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