Характер реакций скорпиона

Характер реакций скорпиона указывает на то, что он определяет нужный угол поворота в результате интеграции информации, поступающей от каждой из его ног. Когда я выборочно исключал часть сигналов, мне всегда удавалось помешать скорпиону, точно установить направление на источник раздражения.

Опыты с созданием воздушной прослойки показали, что скорпион извлекает информацию, необходимую ему для обнаружения жертвы, из распространяющихся по субстрату сигналов, которые он. по-видимому, воспринимает с помощью рецепторов, находящихся в ногах. Предстояло выяснить, что это за рецепторы, но прежде следовало установить природу передаваемых песком сигналов, несущих полезную для скорпиона информацию.

Последний вопрос был особенно интересен, поскольку геофизики всегда считали песок плохим проводником упругих волн, чему есть две причины. Во-первых, песок представляет собой гранулярный рыхлый субстрат, в котором соседние частицы не прилегают плотно одна к другой. В то время как в плотном твердом субстрате, например в камне, давление, приложенное к одной частице, изменяет положение другой и это изменение распространяется в виде упругой волны, в песке кинетическая энергия быстро рассеивается из-за трения при скольжении частиц относительно друг друга. В неупругом субстрате сильнее затухают низкочастотные (длинноволновые) колебания. А при высокой частоте колебаний длины волн так малы, что приближаются к линейным размерам частиц песка. Песчинки отражают и рассеивают их, отфильтровывая таким образом высокочастотные компоненты от проходящей волны. В результате этих двух процессов — затухания низкочастотных и

рассеивания высокочастотных компонентов песок будет пропускать упругие волны лишь в очень узком диапазоне частот, а может быть, не будет пропускать их вовсе.

Тем не менее, было ясно, что скорпионы получают какой-то сигнал, и поэтому я решил изучить проводящие свойства песка более детально. С этой целью я помешал в ящике с песком на разной глубине и на поверхности пьезоэлектрические сейсмометры. Такой сейсмометр представляет собой диск из кристаллического кварца, в котором при давлении на плоские стороны возникает электрический ток. С помощью пьезоэлектрического преобразователя я вызывал периодические колебательные движения субстрата на некотором расстоянии от сейсмометров. В первых же опытах показания сейсмометров подтвердили то, о чем можно было догадываться на основании наблюдений за поведением скорпионов: песок довольно хорошо проводит механические колебания на расстоянии до нескольких дециметров.



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