Явление гетерозиса

Явление гетерозиса было успешно использовано при разведении ив и тополей. Ивовые, тополя и ивы, являются двудомными растениями (мужские и женские цветки располагаются на разных растениях), и у них часто наблюдается естественная гибридизация. Начиная с античных времен в естественных популяциях ив и тополей вели отбор на продуктивность и другие признаки. Традиционные для Франции клоны тополей «Блан дю Пуату», «Тардиф де Шампань» и «Робюста», выведенные в XIX в., а также итальянский тополь и «Серотина», выведенные в XVII в., появились в результате такого отбора. В течение последних тридцати лет проводилась искусственная систематическая гибрилизаиия тополей различных видов и географических рас. Показатели современных клонов вдвое превосходят показатели использованных родительских форм, так что, если раньше тополя срубали в возрасте 25-30 лет, в настояшее время они вырубаются в возрасте 15-18 лет.

Однако для практического применения индивидуальной селекции надо иметь возможность размножать выдающиеся особи. Перспективным может оказаться вегетативное размножение, в частности черенкование. Некоторые деревья легко поддаются черенкованию; что касается пород, разводимых для получения древесины, они иногда черенкуются с трудом. Черенкование лучше проводить, пока возраст растения не превышает нескольких месяцев. Позже образование корней происходит медленнее и труднее, ведь черенок сохраняет те темпы роста, которые были у него на материнском растении.

Чтобы из черенка регенерировало нормально растущее дерево, надо привести выбранное растение в физиологическое состояние, допускающее черенкование, т.е. омолодить его. Это

вполне возможно — ведь растительная клетка сохраняет «тотипотентность», т.е. способна ледифференцироваться и снова дифференцироваться в другом направлении. В растении клетки постоянно находятся под влиянием веществ двух типов: специализирующих (ауксины и гиббереллины), вырабатываемых наземной частью растения, и специализирующих (типа цитокинина), продуцируемых корневой системой.

Задача состоит в том, чтобы с помощью различных воздействий изменить соотношение ауксинов и цитокининов в тканях на обратное. Для этого предпочитают использовать части растения, близкие к корням, — такие, как пневая поросль, которая моложе верхних частей растения.

 

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