Загадочное кольцо Е

УЧЕНЫЕ обнаружили немало планет, имеющих кольца, и поэтому в астрономии такое явление считается столь же обычным, как и наличие у планет спутников. Кольца образуются в основном в результате столкновений спутников, фрагментации одиночного тела под действием сил гравитации планет или вследствие аккреции вещества, оставшегося после формирования планеты. Однако кольцо Е планеты Сатурн, по-видимому, имеет необычное происхождение и состав.

Подробный анализ данных, полученных с космических аппаратов «Пионер- 11», «Вояджер-1» и «Вояджер-2», приводит к предположению, что кольцо Е Сатурна состоит из мельчайших пылевых частиц, образовавшихся в результате вулканических выбросов на Энцеладе — одном из 17 известных спутников Сатурна, который находится в кольце Е.

Сотрудники Лаборатории реактивного движения К. Панг, Ч. Водж, Дж. Роадз и Дж. Аджелло в статье, опубликованной в журнале «Journal of Geophysical Research», отмечают, что кольцо имеет наибольшую яркость там, где проходит орбита Энцелада, а к периферии его яркость экспоненциально убывает. На основании только этого факта многие ученые полагают, что Энцелад, небольшой спутник диаметром всего лишь около 500 км, служит источником пылевого вещества кольца. Исследование оптических свойств показывает, что кольцо состоит из частиц льда диаметром 2 — 2,5 мкм.

Авторы статьи указывают, что происхождение этих частиц связано с извержениями на Энцеладе, которые в свою очередь обусловлены тектонической активностью на этом спутнике. Поскольку орбита Энцелада слегка вытянута, он осциллирует в поле тяготения Сатурна; за счет действия приливных сил, обусловленных эллиптичностью орбиты, вода в недрах спутника остается жидкой и создается энергия, вызывающая периодические извержения.

 

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