Звук

Звук, получаемый в результате наложения спектра, не музыкальный и весьма странный. Чтобы избежать этого нежелательного эффекта, частота выборки должна быть достаточной для регистрации всех имеющих значение обертонов. Перед устройством дискретизации желательно также установить фильтр, который бы ограничил ширину полосы и исключил нежелательные составляющие. Такая фильтрация дол жна выполняться в аналоговой области, до выполнения дискретизации.

И наконец, фильтрация необходима и после восстановления сигнала, поскольку из-за дискретности процесса выборки выходной сигнал имеет не плавную, а ступенчатую форму. Присутствующие в нем крутые фронты соответствуют высокочастотным составляющим, которых не было в исходном сигнале. Искажения второго типа связаны с ошибкой квантования. Они возникают в случае, если длина слова данных недостаточна для описания амплитуды с необходимой степенью детализации. Когда амплитудное значение сигнала находится между двумя соседними квантами, устройству дискретизации приходится выбирать один из них и тем самым вносить ошибку.

Если рассматривать достаточно длительный временной интервал, то появление таких ошибок носит случайный характер. Получаемый вследствие этого звук похож на шум, за тем лишь исключением, что возникает он только при наличии сигнала. Воспроизведение сопровождается жужжанием, и кажется, что оно связано с сигналом. Для решения проблемы во входной сигнал вводится аналоговый шум определенной амплитуды, и на его фоне шум, связанный с ошибкой квантования, маскируется. В результате этой операции шум возникает по случайному закону, и уровень слышимых искажений значительно уменьшается.

Как только в некоторый момент амплитуда сигнала представляется числом, это числовое значение необходимо запомнить. Поскольку данные обрабатываются цифровым компьютером, из чисел формируется двоичное слово. Наиболее часто используется формат представления, называемый линейной импульсно-кодовой модуляцией, который был разработан в 1939 г. сотрудником фирмы Bell Laboratories А. Ривсом.

 

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